All Attribute given by ls –l in Unix/Linux

Unix and Linux


 ls -l is very basic and useful command in Unix/Linux whenever we need to get list of files and directories along with all attributes. Here we need to understand about all attribute so that we could use them as per our requirement.

ls:- this command is used to get list of files and directories.

-l:- this gives attributes about file and directories of given by ls command.

Permission   Link   UserID   GroupID    Size   FileCreatedDateTime    FileName

drwxr-xr-x     5        bipin       sbipin         75     Mar 17 2017                     FileDir

-rwxr-xr-x      2        bipin       sbipin         40     Jan 25 2017                       a.txt

-rwxr-xr-x      2        bipin       sbipin         40     Jul 15 01:40                       b.txt




  • Permission: – Here we have two thing
  1. We can know weather it’s file or directory. If it starts with “d” then it’s directory and if it starts with “-“ then it’s file. In above example “FileDir” is directory and and a.txt and b.txt are files.
  2. Second thing we can understand about permission that who can read, write and execute that file or directory.


  • Link:- it tells about link. We can know that how many number of links file/directory have. Link in Unix/Linux is used to point any file or directory like pointer. A file can have many link with same content.

Example:- Suppose there is any file named theway.txt

We can create numbers of link for theway.txt file with below command.

ln:- command to create link

Syntax:- ln filename linkname

 ln theway.txt theway_1.txt

ln theway.txt theway_2.txt

So here theway.txt have 3 link because 2 link has been created and one file itself.


UserID:- it tells user name who created file or directory.

GroupID:- It tells group name of user.


Size:- It tells about size of file/directory in bytes.

File Created Date Time:- It tells about file/directory created data and time. Here you need to know one basic thing which is related files a.txt and b.txt in above example.

a.txt file created date and time is Jan 25 2017 (Without time but with year) but b.txt file created date and time is Jul 15 01:40 it means b.txt is created in current year that is why it is not showing year and a.txt is created in past year so it is showing year instead of time.


File Name:- And last one is file/directory name.


How to get list of all directory in Unix


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